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|Family Process Heft 4/2007
|1/2007 - 2/2007 - 3/2007 - 4/2007 - Überblick
Imber-Black, Evan (2007): Making Family Process Truly International. In: Family Process 46(4), S. 419-420
Beels, C. Christian (2007): Psychotherapy as a Rite of Passage. In: Family Process 46(4), S. 421-436
abstract: Some psychotherapies may work because they resemble rites of passage. To explore this idea, this article describes an "individual" case of depression in which drug, cognitive, and narrative approaches fell short of effectiveness, and change occurred in a series of experiences that resemble a rite of passage. This resemblance is illuminated by examining two apparently quite different healing processes-Alcoholics Anonymous and multifamily group therapy in schizophrenia-to explore the elements they have in common with the case described: the acceptance of what Victor Turner called a liminal experience, and the importance of witnesses to the ritual support for that acceptance. The discussion contributes to a loosening of the distinctions between the processes of individual, family, group, and other social therapies and leads to questions about the expert knowledge the therapist provides.
Watts-Jones, Dee, Rehana Ali, Jose Alfaro & Aquilla Frederick (2007): The Role of a Mentoring Group for Family Therapy Trainees and Therapists of Color. In: Family Process 46(4), S. 437-450
abstract: This article discusses the development, process, and impact of a mentoring group for family therapists of color. A within-group process for trainees of color in a predominantly White institution can provide a valuable resource for support, validation, empowerment, and collective action. The article examines how such mentoring promotes the effectiveness of therapists of color, as well as the practices and goals of social justice and diversity within training institutions and the field in general. Reflections and recommendations for implementing such a group are offered, as well as a personal narrative of a group member's experience of finding her voice in the group.
Parra Cardona, Jose Ruben, Emily Meyer, Lawrence Schiamberg & Lori Post (2007): Elder Abuse and Neglect in Latino Families: An Ecological and Culturally Relevant Theoretical Framework for Clinical Practice. In: Family Process 46(4), S. 451-470
abstract: There is a scarcity of theoretical frameworks capable of describing precursors and dynamics associated with elder abuse and neglect in Latino families. The present manuscript seeks to address this gap in the literature by presenting an integrative theoretical framework that fosters an ecological and cultural understanding of elder abuse and neglect among Latinos. The proposed model rests on the premise that Latino families caring for elder adults have the ability to adapt to the demands of aging only if they are supported by nurturing environments. The usefulness of the model is threefold. First, the proposed model describes elder abuse and neglect as multifactorial phenomena and identifies specific risk factors associated with the etiology and maintenance of elder abuse and neglect in Latino families. Second, the model provides clinical applications, including reflections about the therapists' need to extend their scope of practice beyond traditional family therapy interventions. A brief case study is presented that illustrates the clinical application of the model with a Latino family. Implications for future research are discussed.
Halford, Kim, Jan Nicholson & Matthew Sanders (2007): Couple Communication in Stepfamilies. In: Family Process 46(4), S. 471-483
abstract: Effective communication is assumed to help sustain couple relationships and is a key focus of most relationship education programs. We assessed couple problem-solving communication in 65 stepfamily and 52 first-time-marrying couples, with each group stratified into high risk and low risk for relationship problems based on family-of-origin experiences. Relative to partners in first-time couples, partners in stepfamily couples were less positive, less negative, and more likely to withdraw from discussion. Risk was associated with communication in first-time but not stepfamily couples. Stepfamily couples do not exhibit the negative communication evident in high-risk first-time-marrying couples, and available relationship education programs that focus on reducing negative communication are unlikely to meet the needs of stepfamilies.
Hollist, Cody S., Richard B. Miller, Olga G. Falceto & Carmen Luiza C. Fernandes (2007): Marital Satisfaction and Depression: A Replication of the Marital Discord Model in a Latino Sample. In: Family Process 46(4), S. 485-498
abstract: The Marital Discord Model of Depression maintains that marital discord is an important antecedent in the development of depression. Although empirical evidence supports this premise, none of this research has been done with Latinos. The purpose of this study was to test the longitudinal relationship between marital satisfaction and depression among 99 Brazilian women. Using structural equation modeling, results indicated that marital satisfaction was a strong predictor of depression 2 years later. Marital satisfaction was also related to cooccurring depression. These results provide evidence that the Marital Discord Model of Depression is an appropriate theoretical model for the conceptualization of marital discord and depression with Latina women and suggest the potential utility of using couples therapy for treating depression among this population.
Heene, Els, Ann Buysse & Paulette Van Oost (2007): An Interpersonal Perspective on Depression: The Role of Marital Adjustment, Conflict Communication, Attributions, and Attachment Within a Clinical Sample. In: Family Process 46(4), S. 499-514
abstract: Previous studies have focused on the difficulties in psychosocial functioning in depressed persons, underscoring the distress experienced by both spouses. We selected conflict communication, attribution, and attachment as important domains of depression in the context of marital adjustment, and we analyzed two hypotheses in one single study. First, we analyzed whether a clinical sample of couples with a depressed patient would differ significantly from a control group on these variables. Second, we explored to what degree these variables mediate/moderate the relationship between depressive symptoms and marital adjustment. The perspectives of both spouses were taken into account, as well as gender differences. In total, 69 clinical and 69 control couples were recruited, and a series of multivariate analyses of variance and regression analyses were conducted to test both hypotheses. Results indicated that both patients and their partners reported less marital adjustment associated with more negative perceptions on conflict communication, causal attributions, and insecure attachment. In addition, conflict communication and causal attributions were significant mediators of the association between depressive symptoms and marital adjustment for both depressed men and women, and causal attributions also moderated this link. Ambivalent attachment was a significant mediator only for the female identified patients. Several sex differences and clinical implications are discussed.
Tseliou, Eleftheria & Ivan Eisler (2007): You" and "I," "Us" and "Them": A Systemic-Discursive Approach to the Study of Ethnic Stereotypes in the Context of British-Greek Heterosexual Couple Relationships. In: Family Process 46(4), S. 515-522
abstract: Systemic family therapy accounts of ethnic stereotypes in the context of ethnically mixed couple relationships have tended to focus on the interpersonal-psychological realm of the couple relationship. Discourse analytic research, on the other hand, has highlighted the role of such stereotypes in the construction of national identity and has stressed the importance of a historical and ideological approach. In this article, we will present our attempt to develop a systemic-discursive approach to the study of stereotypes in the particular context of British-Greek heterosexual couple relationships by building on both fields.
Gagne, Marie-Helene, Sylvie Drapeau, Claudiane Melancon, Marie-Christine Saint-Jacques & Rachel Lepine (2007): Links Between Parental Psychological Violence, Other Family Disturbances, and Children's Adjustment. In: Family Process 46(4), S. 523-542
abstract: In a sample of 143 parent-child dyads from two-parent and separated families, this investigation documented the links between parental psychological violence and separation or divorce, severity of parental conflict, triangulation of the child in this conflict, and polarized parent-child alliances. The unique and combined contributions of all these variables to children's behavior problems were also assessed. Participants were parents, mostly mothers, and their 10-12-year-old child. They were recruited through schools, community organizations, and newspapers. Questionnaires were administered at home. Findings suggest that separated families undergo more relational disturbances than two-parent families (more severe conflicts, more triangulation, stronger parent-child alliances), but the amount of parental psychological violence was similar in both groups. Psychological violence was associated with the severity of parental conflict, especially in two-parent families. Triangulation of the child in parental conflict was another correlate of psychological violence. Once all variables were controlled for, psychological violence remained the only significant correlate of children's externalized behavior problems. These findings raise the importance of preventing psychological violence toward children, especially in families plagued with severe parental conflicts.
Stevenson-Hinde, Joan, Curley Patrick, James, Rebecca Chicot & Cessie Johannsson (2007): Anxiety Within Families: Interrelations, Consistency, and Change. In: Family Process 46(4), S. 543-556
abstract: In a community sample of mothers (N=763), each with a focal child aged 4.5 years, anxiety levels were high. Only 54% of mothers had anxiety scores within the "normal" Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) range, compared with 85% for depression. A subsample (N=116) was selected for two-parent families, one to three children, and mothers spread over low, medium, and high anxiety levels. Mothers' anxiety was not significantly related to age, education, or work status, but rather to mothers' and fathers' independent ratings of marital satisfaction and family functioning, and to fathers' own anxiety and depression. Fathers' anxiety was related not to their own views of marital satisfaction and family functioning, but rather to mothers' views and to maternal anxiety. Assessments 8 years later-of anxiety, depression, and family functioning-showed high consistency over time, particularly maternal anxiety (r=.70) and paternal depression (r=.81). Although means did not change significantly over time for fathers, mothers' anxiety, depression, and perceptions of family functioning all improved (p<.001). For parents who were later to separate (compared with the others), initial family functioning, dyadic adjustment, and maternal anxiety were significantly "worse." The strongest predictor of later break-up was fathers' dyadic adjustment.
Aarons, Gregory A., Elizabeth J. Mcdonald, Cynthia D. Connelly & Rae R. Newton (2007): Assessment of Family Functioning in Caucasian and Hispanic Americans: Reliability, Validity, and Factor Structure of the Family Assessment Device. In: Family Process 46(4), S. 557-569
abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Family Assessment Device (FAD) among a national sample of Caucasian and Hispanic American families receiving public sector mental health services. A confirmatory factor analysis conducted to test model fit yielded equivocal findings. With few exceptions, indices of model fit, reliability, and validity were poorer for Hispanic Americans compared with Caucasian Americans. Contrary to our expectation, an exploratory factor analysis did not result in a better fitting model of family functioning. Without stronger evidence supporting a reformulation of the FAD, we recommend against such a course of action. Findings highlight the need for additional research on the role of culture in measurement of family functioning.
Anderson, Harlene & Lynn Hoffman (2007): Memories of Tom David Andersen: Friend, Colleague, Scholar, Inspirer, and Rhizome. In: Family Process 46(4), S. 571-574