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|Family Process Heft 1/2003
|1/2003 - 2/2003 - 3/2003 - 4/2003 - Überblick
Walsh, Froma (2003): Family Resilience: A Framework for Clinical Practice. In: Family Process 42(1), S. 1-18
abstract: This article presents an overview of a family resilience framework developed for clinical practice, and describes its advantages. Drawing together findings from studies of individual resilience and research on effective family functioning, key processes in family resilience are outlined in three domains: family belief systems, organizational patterns, and communication/problem-solving. Clinical practice applications are described briefly to suggest the broad utility of this conceptual framework for intervention and prevention efforts to strengthen families facing serious life challenges.
Monk, Gerald & Diane R. Gehart (2003): Sociopolitical Activist or Conversational Partner? Distinguishing the Position of the Therapist in Narrative and Collaborative Therapies. In: Family Process 42(1), S. 19-30
abstract: In this article, we explore the similarities and differences of two contemporary family therapy approaches: narrative and collaborative therapies. These therapies are contrasted by describing positioning of the narrative practitioner as sociopolitical activist and the collaborative practitioner as conversational partner. The article begins with a brief overview of the two therapies. Subsequently, we outline their epistemological genealogies and the practice similarities that arise from the theoretical assumptions underpinning these therapies. The remainder of the article addresses the theoretical and therapeutic differences in narrative and collaborative approaches reflected in the positioning of therapist as either sociopolitical activist or conversational partner. While narrative and collaborative approaches share more similarities than differences in relation to their emphasis on the constitutive characteristics of language, focus on sociorelational contexts, and critique of singular objective truths, prominence is given to the starker contrasts in narrative and collaborative understandings of politics, power, dialogue, and discourse. It is proposed that by outlining some provocative contrasts between narrative and collaborative approaches, new conversations and generative practices will emerge in the therapy room.
Mitrani, Victoria B., Guillermo Prado, Daniel J. Feaster, Carleen Robinson-Batista & Jose Szapocznik (2003): Relational Factors and Family Treatment Engagement among Low-Income, HIV-Positive African American Mothers. In: Family Process 42(1), S. 31-45
abstract: Clinically derived hypotheses regarding treatment engagement of families of low-income, HIV-positive, African American mothers are tested using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Predictors are baseline family relational factors (family support, mother's desire for involvement with family, and family hassles) and mother's history of substance dependence. The study examines a subsample of 49 mothers enrolled in a clinical trial testing the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET). SET is a family-based intervention intended to relieve and prevent psychosocial distress associated with HIV/AIDS. Participants in the subsample were randomly assigned to SET and attended at least two therapy sessions. Findings reveal that family relational factors predicted family treatment engagement (family support, p < 004 ; mother's desire for involvement with family, p < 008 ; family hassles, p < 027). Family support predicted family treatment engagement beyond the prediction provided by the other relational factors and the mother's own treatment engagement (p < 016). History of substance dependence was neither associated with family treatment engagement nor family support. Post hoc analyses revealed that family hassles (p < 003) and mother's desire for involvement with family (p < 018) were differentially related to family treatment engagement in low-versus high-support families. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.
Sobel, Susan & C. Brookes Cowan (2003): Ambiguous Loss and Disenfranchised Grief: The Impact of DNA Predictive Testing on the Family as a System. In: Family Process 42(1), S. 47-57
abstract: DNA predictive testing to diagnose the presence of hereditary disease in asymptomatic individuals has become increasingly available. Information provided by these tests has implications for all relatives. In an exploratory study we examined the impact, from the family's perspective, of predictive DNA testing for Huntington disease on the family as a system. Central to their stories was a sense of loss and grief that was perhaps unique to the testing situation. The description of these losses is presented in the context of ambiguous loss as defined by Boss, disenfranchised grief as presented by Doka, and anticipatory grief as addressed by Rolland. These theories suggest clinical interventions that can be used by healthcare professionals to help families adjust to the psychosocial consequences of testing. Death too is in the egg. -Anne Sexton, All My Pretty Ones (1962, p.13)
Peterson, Brennan D., Christopher R. Newton & Karen H. Rosen (2003): Examining Congruence Between Partners' Perceived Infertility-Related Stress and Its Relationship to Marital Adjustment and Depression in Infertile Couples. In: Family Process 42(1), S. 59-70
abstract: Because studies examining the emotional impact of infertility-related stress generally focus on individuals, there has been little research examining how relationship and individual Variables are linked. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of congruence (e.g., agreement) between partner's perceived infertility-related stress and its effects on depression and marital adjustment in infertile men and women. Couples referred for infertility treatments at a University-affiliated teaching hospital completed the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) 3 months prior to their first treatment cycle. Study findings show that men and women in couples who perceived equal levels of social infertility stress reported higher levels of marital adjustment when compared to men and women in couples who perceived the stress differently. In addition, women in couples who felt a similar need for parenthood reported significantly higher levels of marital satisfaction when compared to women in couples where the males reported a greater need for parenthood. While couple incongruence was unrelated to depression in males, incongruence over relationship concerns and the need for parenthood was related to female depression. These findings provide initial support for the theory that high levels of agreement between partners related to the stresses they experience help them successfully manage the impact of these stressful life events. Possibilities for future research examining the construct of couple congruence are discussed.
Fyrand, Live, Torbjosrn Moum, Arnstein Finset & Anne Glennas (2003): The Effect of Social Network Intervention for Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis. In: Family Process 42(1), S. 71-89
abstract: A partially-controlled intervention study was performed. Female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were allocated to three groups: the network intervention group (n=104), the attention control group (n=85), and the no-treatment control group (n=75). The network intervention consisted of an assessment session and a network meeting. Patients were assessed at baseline and approximately 10 and 18 months after the intervention. The network intervention group reported an increase in network size. Daily emotional support increased for the intervention patients compared with patients in the attention control group. The degree of social dysfunction was reduced for patients in the intervention group compared to patients in the no-treatment control group. Furthermore, for single patients, the intervention significantly increased the social network size and improved both social functioning, and perceived overall health, compared to both control groups. The results suggest that the social needs of single patients should be given special attention in clinical settings.
McDonell, Michael G., Robert A. Short, Christopher M. Berry & Dennis G. Dyck (2003): Burden in Schizophrenia Caregivers: Impact of Family Psychoeducation and Awareness of Patient Suicidality. In: Family Process 42(1), S. 91-103
abstract: Family caregivers of persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders experience high levels of burden. Although a number of patient and caregiver predictors of burden have been identified, little research has investigated the contributions of patient depression, suicidal ideation, and substance abuse. In addition, family psychoeducation interventions have reduced patient symptoms, as well as inpatient treatment utilization; however, it is not known whether or not these interventions reduce family burden. This study- investigated predictors of family burden and tested to what degree multiple family group treatment (MFGT), relative to a standard-care condition, was associated with reduced family burden. Participants were 90 outpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, and their caregivers who were enrolled in a 2 year psychoeducation intervention. The best set of predictors of burden, identified by stepwise linear regression, was young patient age, awareness of patient's suicidal ideation, and family resources. These variables accounted for 32% of the total variance in burden. Findings suggest that caregiver's awareness of patient's suicidal ideation; not patient's report of suicidal ideation; and that patient age not duration of the illness, were significant, independent predictors of burden. When compared to a standard-care condition over 2 years, MFGT did not reduce family caregiver burden. Discussions focus on the relationship between burden and its predictors, and possible reasons why MFGT did not decrease burden. Modifications are proposed that may increase the impact of MFGT.
Baker, Amy J.L., Risa Tabacoff, Gabriel Tornusciolo & Marvin Eisenstadt (2003): Family Secrecy: A Comparative Study of Juvenile Sex Offenders and Youth with Conduct Disorders. In: Family Process 42(1), S. 105-116
abstract: The reported research was designed to compare adjudicated male juvenile sexual offenders and youth with conduct disorders on five aspects of family secrecy and deception twenty-nine male juvenile sex offenders and 32 comparison youth from three child welfare agencies in New York State participated in the study. Research assistants, blind to the hypotheses of the study and status of the youth, coded agency records for five variables identified a priori as a basis of comparison. Analyses revealed that the two groups were different on three of the five and on the total number of items scored. Families of juvenile sex offenders told more lies, had more family myths, and were more likely to be involved in taboo behavior. Logistic regression revealed that this factor of family deception significantly increased the odds of sexual offending over and above other measures of family pathology. These data support the hypotheses of the study and have implications for both clinical practice and future research in this area.
Baum, Nehami (2003): Divorce Process Variables and the Co-Parental Relationship and Parental Role Fulfillment of Divorced Parents. In: Family Process 42(1), S. 117-131
abstract: This study examines the association between two sets of divorce process variables, a initiation of and responsibility for the divorce and b) difficulty and duration of the legal procedure, and divorced spouses co-parental relationship and parental functioning. In a random sample of 50 former couples, in Israel; findings showed that the longer and more conflictual the legal proceedings, the worse the co-parental relationship in the view of both parents. They also showed that mothers' parental functioning was not significantly associated with any of the divorce variables, but fathers' were. The more responsibility the father assumed for the divorce and the more he viewed himself as the initiator, the more he fulfilled his parental functions. The findings are interpreted in the discussion, and their theoretical and practical implications considered.
Heene, Els, Ann Buysse & Paulette Oost (2003): A Categorical and Dimensional Perspective on Depression Within a Nonclinical Sample of Couples. In: Family Process 42(1), S. 133-149
abstract: The present study investigated the role of psychosocial variables that are indicators for depressive symptomatology within a couple. The variables chosen for this study were conflict communication, marital adjustment, attachment, attribution style, and personality trails-all potentially specific indicators. A global factor analysis on all our measures revealed that our individual and relational measures were stable findings. We wanted to compare a dimensional and categorical view of depression. First, we focused on the total nonclinical sample, considering depression on a continuum, and studying the selected characteristics along with the varying degree of depressive complaints. The results highlighted the importance of individual characteristics (neuroticism and life satisfaction) covarying with the level of depressive symptomatology in the nonclinical sample (n=186 couples). Second, in addition to this correlational design, we compared the group of most depressed subjects and their partners with a control sample (n=34). Both approaches pointed to the same conclusion, individual characteristics covaried with mild depression, whereas couple characteristics only came into the picture with a higher level of depressive complaints. The lowest levels of depressive complaints were associated with individual co-morbidity only, whereas increasing complaints went along with additional relational complaints. Implications for assessment and future research are discussed.
Javo, Cecilie, Richard Alapack, Sonja Heyerdahl & John A. Rosnning (2003): Parental Values and Ethnic Identity in Indigenous Sami Families: A Qualitative Study. In: Family Process 42(1), S. 151-164
abstract: The qualitative study reported in this article is part of a larger multimethod investigation of child-rearing practices and child-behavior problems in indigenous Sami and majority Norwegian populations in the Sami core area in Northern Norway. In the primary quantitative study we found significant ethnic differences between Sami and Norwegian parents in various areas of child rearing and family structure. Seeking the deeper cultural meaning underlying the parental practices and attitudes that had emerged in the indigenous Sami group, we performed additional in depth interviews. Four parents, selected from the sample of 134 Sami parents, served as subjects. Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological method was used. Data analysis of the interviews identified seven key constituents of Sami child rearing, which in their interrelationships formed a common structure that constitutes the results of this study. These constituents were: (1) Independence, (2) Hardiness, (3) Autonomy, (4) Closeness/Love, (5) Sami Language, (6) Sami Traditions, and (7) Extended Family. The first four constituents are constituents pertaining to child-rearing values, while the latter three are contextual constituents, related to the promotion of ethnic identity. The study discusses the contemporary dilemmas and challenges that face Sami families in raising their children. It highlights the phenomenon of cultural transition in minority families as an important topic in family research.
Wendel, Richard (2003): Lived Religion and Family Therapy: What Does Spirituality Have to Do with It? In: Family Process 42(1), S. 165-179
Doherty, William J.(2003): A Wake Up Call: Comment on "Lived Religion and Family Therapy. In: Family Process 42(1), S. 181-183