Copyright © 2013
levold system design
Alle Rechte vorbehalten.
|Family Process Heft 2/2013
|1/2013 - 2/2013 - 3/2013 - 4/2013 - Überblick
Lebow, Jay L. (2013): Editorial: DSM-V and Family Therapy. In: Family Process 52 (2): 155-160.
Wamboldt, Marianne Z. (2013): Editorial: A Brief Thought About Diagnostic Systems and Relationship Patterns. In: Family Process 52 (2): 161-162.
Siegel, Judith P. (2013): Breaking the Links in Intergenerational Violence: An Emotional Regulation Perspective. In: Family Process 52 (2): 163-178.
abstract: The saying “violence begets violence” is an apt descriptor of the cycle of family violence, as children who witness parental violence are at high risk for repeating family violence in their own adult intimate relationships. Neuroscience research suggests that emotional regulation may be an important link in the heritability of family violence, and promotes awareness of the importance of internalizing as well as externalizing responses to stress, neglect, and abuse. This study argues for a trauma-informed approach to identifying children and parents whose symptoms of emotional dysregulation may be otherwise overlooked, and for an expanded approach to treatment that incorporates family systems and emotional regulation strategies.
Perry, Armon Rashard & Cheri Langley (2013): Even with the Best of Intentions: Paternal Involvement and the Theory of Planned Behavior. In: Family Process 52 (2): 179-192.
abstract: Implicit in much of the fatherhood discourse is the assumption that if fathers want to take an active role in their children’s lives, they could and would do so. While research has highlighted the factors associated with fathers‘ involvement, very few, if any, of these studies have been guided by a theory that accounts for both fathers‘ involvement intentions and their ability to follow through on those intentions. The theory of planned behavior and its emphasis on attitudes, the beliefs of significant others, and whether one has control over engaging in behavior is a conceptual fit to respond to questions related to the complex nature of paternal involvement. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study, the purpose of this study was to test the utility of the theory of planned behavior in predicting fathers‘ involvement intentions and reports of involvement. The results revealed that the theory of planned behavior can be useful in examining paternal involvement and should be used in future research to enhance the fatherhood literature.
Omer, Haim, Sarit G. Steinmetz, Tal Carthy & Arist von Schlippe (2013): The Anchoring Function: Parental Authority and the Parent-Child Bond. In: Family Process 52 (2): 193-206.
abstract: Descriptions of parental authority and of the formation of a secure parent-child bond have remained unconnected in conceptualizations about parenting and child development. The parental anchoring function is here presented as an integrative metaphor for the two fields. Parents who fulfill an anchoring function offer a secure relational frame for the child, while also manifesting a stabilizing and legitimate kind of authority. The anchoring function enriches the two fields by: (1) adding a dimension of authority to the acknowledged functions of the safe haven and the secure base that are seen as core to a secure parent-child bond, and (2) adding considerations about the parent-child bond to Baumrind’s classical description of authoritative parenting.
Nichols, Michael & Sydney Tafuri (2013): Techniques of Structural Family Assessment: A Qualitative Analysis of How Experts Promote a Systemic Perspective. In: Family Process 52 (2): 207-215.
abstract: The trajectory of assessment in structural family therapy moves from a linear perspective, in which problems are located in the identified patient, to an interactional perspective, in which problems are seen as involving other members of the family. Minuchin, Nichols, & Lee (2007) developed a 4-step model for assessing couples and families consisting of: (1) broadening the definition of the presenting complaint to include its context, (2) identifying problem-maintaining interactions, (3) a structurally focused exploration of the past, and (4) developing a shared vision of pathways to change. To study how experts actually implement this model, judges coded video recordings of 10 initial consultations conducted by three widely recognized structural family therapists. Qualitative analyses identified 25 distinct techniques that these clinicians used to challenge linear thinking and move families toward a systemic understanding of their problems. We discuss and locate these techniques in the framework of the 4-step model.
Sigmarsdóttir, Margrét & Edda Vikar Guðmundsdóttir (2013): Implementation of Parent Management Training—Oregon Model (PMTOTM) in Iceland: Building Sustained Fidelity. In: Family Process 52 (2): 216-227.
abstract: Bringing empirically supported treatments (ESTs) into community settings is a challenge because of threats to therapy adherence. The nationwide implementation of Parent Management Training—the Oregon Model (PMTO) in Iceland was studied by comparing therapists‘ competent adherence to PMTO across three generations of therapists. To assess therapists‘ competence and adherence to the PMTO method, the Fidelity of Implementation Rating System (FIMP) was used as the measuring device. Of 16 therapists across three generations who entered training, 12 completed with certification. As expected, each of the three generations obtained adequate FIMP scores. Generations 1 and 3 showed equivalent levels of performance on FIMP scores at certification. A small drop in FIMP scores for Generation 2 was explained in terms of translating and culturally adjusting materials and strengthening training procedures. Results are parallel to earlier findings from the nationwide PMTO implementation in Norway and support the idea that PMTO can be implemented in community settings with high fidelity even when resources are scarce.
Halford, W. Kim & Susie Sweeper (2013): Trajectories of Adjustment to Couple Relationship Separation. In: Family Process 52 (2): 228-243.
abstract: To test a stress-diathesis model of adjustment to separation, the current study describes the trajectories of different aspects of separation adjustment in people formerly married or cohabiting, and moderators of those trajectories. A convenience sample of 303 recently separated individuals (169 women; 134 men) completed assessments of their emotional attachment to the former partner, loneliness, psychological distress, and coparenting conflict at two time points 6 months apart. Multilevel modeling of the overlapping multicohort design was used to estimate the trajectories of these different aspects of adjustment as a function of time since separation, marital status, gender, presence of children from the relationship, who initiated separation, social support, and anxious attachment. Attachment to the former partner, loneliness, and psychological distress were initially high but improved markedly across the 2 years after separation, but coparenting conflict was high and stable. Adjustment problems were similar in men and women, and in those formerly married or cohabiting, except that reported coparenting conflict was higher in men than women. Low social support and high anxious attachment predicted persistent attachment to the former partner, loneliness, and psychological distress. Coparenting conflict is a common, chronic problem for many separated individuals, and individuals with certain psychological vulnerabilities also experience chronic personal distress.
Johnson, Matthew D. & Jared R. Anderson (2013): The Longitudinal Association of Marital Confidence, Time Spent Together, and Marital Satisfaction. In: Family Process 52 (2): 244-256.
abstract: Using three waves of dyadic data collected at 18-month intervals from a community-based sample of 610 newly married heterosexual couples (1 220 individuals), we examined the relationship between marital confidence, time spent together, and marital satisfaction using a modified actor-partner interdependence model. Results indicate that after controlling for marital satisfaction and time spent together at Time 1, marital confidence around the time of marriage was associated with marital satisfaction approximately 3 years later. In addition, marital confidence was associated with how much time husbands and wives spent together at Time 2, which was related to marital satisfaction at Time 3. Tests of the mediating paths from marital confidence to marital satisfaction trended toward significance. The results suggest the importance of assessing for relationship confidence when working with couples in the early stages of their relationship.
Kelmer, Gretchen, Galena K. Rhoades, Scott Stanley & Howard J. Markman (2013): Relationship Quality, Commitment, and Stability in Long-Distance Relationships. In: Family Process 52 (2): 257-270.
abstract: Using a nationally representative sample (N = 870), the present study compared long-distance romantic relationships to close-proximity romantic relationships in terms of relationship quality, commitment, and stability. Individuals in long-distance relationships generally reported higher levels of relationship quality on a number of relationship quality variables, as well as higher levels of dedication to their relationships and lower levels of feeling trapped (i.e., felt constraint), but were similar to individuals in close-proximity relationships in terms of perceived and material constraints. Although individuals in long-distance relationships perceived a lower likelihood of breaking up with their partner at the initial time point, they were as likely as the individuals in close-proximity relationships to have broken up by the follow-up assessment.
Roberts, Nicole A., Rachel C. Leonard, Emily A. Butler, Robert W. Levenson & Jonathan W. Kanter (2013): Job Stress and Dyadic Synchrony in Police Marriages: A Preliminary Investigation. In: Family Process 52 (2): 271-283.
abstract: Despite reports documenting adverse effects of stress on police marriages, few empirical studies focus on actual emotional behaviors of officers and spouses. In this preliminary investigation, 17 male police officers and their nonpolice wives completed daily stress diaries for 1 week and then participated in a laboratory-based discussion about their respective days. Conversations were video-recorded and coded for specific emotional behaviors reflecting hostility and affection, which are strong predictors of marital outcomes. We examined associations between officers‘ job stress (per diaries and the Police Stress Survey) and couples‘ emotional behavior (mean levels and behavioral synchrony) using a dyadic repeated measures design capitalizing on the large number of observations available for each couple (1020 observations). When officers reported more job stress, they showed less hostility, less synchrony with their wives‘ hostility, and more synchrony with their wives‘ affection; their wives showed greater synchrony with officers‘ hostility and less synchrony with officers‘ affection. Therefore, for officers, greater job stress was associated with less behavioral negativity, potentially less attunement to wives‘ negativity, but potentially greater attunement to wives‘ affection—perhaps a compensatory strategy or attempt to buffer their marriage from stress. These attempts may be less effective, however, if, as our synchrony findings may suggest, wives are focusing on officers‘ hostility rather than affection. Although it will be important to replicate these results given the small sample, our findings reveal that patterns of behavioral synchrony may be a key means to better understand how job stress exacts a toll on police marriages.
Papp, Lauren M., Patricia Pendry, Clarissa D. Simon & Emma K. Adam (2013): Spouses‘ Cortisol Associations and Moderators: Testing Physiological Synchrony and Connectedness in Everyday Life. In: Family Process 52 (2): 284-298.
abstract: In this study, associations were examined between cortisol levels of wives and husbands in 47 heterosexual married couples. Both partners‘ salivary cortisol levels were measured at the same moments seven times a day on 2 typical weekdays. After accounting for the effects of the diurnal rhythm of cortisol and relevant control variables, dyadic hierarchical linear modeling indicated significant positive linkages between partners‘ cortisol levels, consistent with the hypothesized within-couple physiological synchrony. Variables reflecting more (spousal presence) or less connectedness (loneliness, being alone) were also collected at the time of each cortisol sample. Results indicated that husbands‘ cortisol levels were higher at moments they reported feeling lonelier and lower at moments they were in the presence of their spouse. Wives‘ cortisol levels were higher at moments they were alone. In addition, wife–husband cortisol synchrony was stronger for husbands who spent relatively more time with their spouse across the study period—even after accounting for time spent with others in general. These findings suggest that marital partners evidence positive within-couple cortisol associations, and that connectedness (particularly physical closeness) may underpin spouses‘ physiological synchrony.
Suro, Giulia & Amy G. Weisman de Mamani (2013): Burden, Interdependence, Ethnicity, and Mental Health in Caregivers of Patients with Schizophrenia. In: Family Process 52 (2): 299-311.
abstract: Caring for a patient with schizophrenia often results in high levels of perceived burden and poorer overall mental health. Using a sample of 176 caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, the present study examined how two components of burden (objective and subjective) interacted with interdependence and ethnicity to influence relatives‘ overall mental health. In line with study hypotheses, and with the stress-appraisal-coping model developed by Lazurus and Folkman (1984), we found that subjective burden mediated the relationship between objective burden and mental health. In other words, subjective appraisals of caregiving appeared to partially underlie the association between the concrete costs of caregiving and psychological outcomes in schizophrenia caregivers. Also as hypothesized, we found that interdependence, or the perceived interconnectedness of individuals within a group, moderated the relationship between objective burden and subjective burden. In other words, when levels of interdependence were high, the objective components of burden appeared to have a weaker relationship with subjective burden. When interdependence was low, on the other hand, objective burden was more likely to be associated with subjective burden. This finding suggests that helping caregivers to value harmony and connection with others over individual self-interests may reduce the likelihood that objective stressors (which are often inevitable in schizophrenia) will result in subjective distress. On the basis of prior research, we also tested several hypotheses regarding the role of ethnicity and its association with burden, interdependence, and mental health. However, contrary to expectations, no ethnic patterns were observed.
Ponnet, Koen, Edwin Wouters, Dimitri Mortelmans, Inge Pasteels, Charlotte De Backer Karla Van Leeuwen & Alain Van Hiel (2013): The Influence of Mothers‘ and Fathers‘ Parenting Stress and Depressive Symptoms on Own and Partner’s Parent-Child Communication. In: Family Process 52 (2): 312-324.
abstract: This study examines how parenting stress and depressive symptoms experienced by mothers and fathers influence their own (actor effects) and the partner’s (partner effects) parent–child communication. Based on the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, data from 196 families were analyzed, with both parents rating their parenting stress and depressive feelings, and parents as well as children rating the open parent–child communication. Actor effects were found between parenting stress and open parent–child communication, whereas partner effects were prominent between depressive symptoms and open parent–child communication. The results provide no evidence for gender differences in the strength of the pathways to open parent–child communication. Our findings demonstrate the need to include both parents in studies on parent–child communication to enhance our understanding of the mutual influence among family members.
Gonzalez, Kirsten A., Sharon S. Rostosky, Robert D. Odom & Ellen D. B. Riggle (2013): The Positive Aspects of Being the Parent of an LGBTQ Child. In: Family Process 52 (2): 325-337.
abstract: Parenting an LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer) identified child presents unique opportunities for growth and development. This study focused on self-reported perceptions of the positive aspects of being the parent of an LGBTQ child. Participants (N = 142) were mothers (83.8%) and fathers (16.2%) of LGBTQ identified individuals who responded to an open-ended online survey. Thematic analysis revealed five primary themes: Personal Growth (open mindedness, new perspectives, awareness of discrimination, and compassion), Positive Emotions (pride and unconditional love), Activism, Social Connection, and Closer Relationships (closer to child and family closeness). The practice implications of these findings for supporting parents in envisioning positive relationship outcomes for themselves and their children are highlighted in the discussion.
Goldberg, Abbie E. & Katherine R. Allen (2013): Donor, Dad, or…? Young Adults with Lesbian Parents’ Experiences with Known Donors. In: Family Process 52 (2): 338-350.
abstract: In this exploratory qualitative study of 11 young adults, ages 19–29 years, we examine how young people who were raised by lesbian parents make meaning out of and construct their relationships with known donors. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine how participants defined their family composition, how they perceived the role of their donors in their lives, and how they negotiated their relationships with their donors. Findings indicate that mothers typically chose known donors who were family friends, that the majority of participants always knew who their donors were, and that their contact with donors ranged from minimal to involved. Further, participants perceived their donors in one of three ways: as strictly donors and not members of their family; as extended family members but not as parents; and as fathers. The more limited role of donors in participants‘ construction of family relationships sheds light on how children raised in lesbian, gay, and bisexual families are contributing to the redefinition and reconstruction of complex kinship arrangements. Our findings hold implications for clinicians who work with lesbian-mother families, and suggest that young adulthood is an important developmental phase during which interest in and contact with the donor may shift, warranting a transfer of responsibility from mother to offspring in terms of managing the donor-child relationship.