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Journ. of Fam.Ther.
Family Process
perspekt. mediation
Psychoth. im Dialog
Soziale Systeme
System Familie
"Das erste Mal"
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Mauerfall 1989
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Family Process Heft 4/2006
1/2006 - 2/2006 - 3/2006 - 4/2006 - Überblick

Silverstein, Rachelle, Linda Buxbaum Bass, Amy Tuttle, Carmen Knudson-Martin & Douglas Huenergard
(2006): What Does It Mean to Be Relational? A Framework for Assessment and Practice. In: Family Process 45(4), S. 391-405.

abstract: The authors begin with a question regarding how to better draw upon relational thinking in making case assessments and treatment plans. They first address issues regarding the cultural construction of self and relationships, integrating women's psychology, family systems, and collectivist culture literatures within a discussion of power. Then they present a heuristic framework for how individuals orient themselves within relationships that includes two dimensions—focus and power—and evolves out of the social context. From these two dimensions, a typology of four basic relational orientations is presented: position directed, rule directed, independence directed, and relationship directed. Case examples from couple's therapy and suggestions for practice are provided.

Shernoff, Michael (2006): Negotiated Nonmonogamy and Male Couples. In: Family Process 45(4), S. 407-418.

abstract: One issue that has the potential to confound family or couples therapists working with male couples is the issue of nonmonogamy. For many therapists, sexual nonexclusivity challenges fundamental clinical assumptions that "affairs," or extra-relationship sex or romantic involvements, are symptoms of troubled relationships and are always a form of "sexual acting out." This article explores the issue of sexual exclusivity and nonexclusivity within male couples. In order to achieve both clinical and cultural competency in work with male couples, therapists need to challenge their cultural biases regarding monogamy.

Wynne, Lyman C., Pekka Tienari, Pentti Nieminen, Anneli Sorri, Ilpo Lahti, Juha Moring, Mikko Naarala, Kristian Läksi, Karl-Erik Wahlberg & Jouko Miettunen (2006): I. Genotype-Environment Interaction in the Schizophrenia Spectrum: Genetic Liability and Global Family Ratings in the Finnish Adoption Study. In: Family Process 45(4), S. 419-434.

abstract: In the Finnish Adoption Study, a national sample of adoptees with high versus low genetic liability for schizophrenia spectrum disorders was indexed by DSM-III-R diagnoses of their biological, adopting-away mothers. The rearing-family environments of the adoptees were independently evaluated from global ratings of directly observed adoptive family relationships. The interaction of high genetic liability and dysfunction of the rearing families predicted highly significantly to schizophrenia spectrum disorder of the adoptees at 21-year follow-up. Either low genetic liability or healthy rearing protected against a spectrum outcomes for the adoptees. Initial adoptive parent diagnosis, as a proxy for rearing family dysfunction, predicted to adoptee outcome only as a trend.

Wynne, Lyman C., Pekka Tienari, Anneli Sorri, Ilpo Lahti, Juha Moring & Karl-Erik Wahlberg (2006): II. Genotype-Environment Interaction in the Schizophrenia Spectrum: Qualitative Observations. In: Family Process 45(4), S. 435-447.

abstract: Previous reports from the Finnish Adoptive Family Study of Schizophrenia have documented significant interplay between genetics (G) and family rearing (E), leading to adoptee outcomes of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Quantitative evidence for this interplay is significantly enhanced when both high genetic liability and severe environmental dysfunction are present. However, when either genetic liability is low or the rearing environment is healthy, the adoptees appear to be resiliently protected against a pathologic outcome. Nevertheless, exceptions to this pattern do occur. Six qualitative vignettes, together with quantitative measures and categorical diagnoses from the same families, illustrate how multiple methods partially confirm one another and also suggest where further exploration of gene-environment interaction is needed.

Dunbar, Nora, Manfred H.M. van Dulmen, Susan Ayers-Lopez, Jerica M. Berge, Cinda Christian, Ginger Gossman, Susan M. Henney, Tai J. Mendenhall, Harold D. Grotevant & Ruth G. McRoy (2006): Processes Linked to Contact Changes in Adoptive Kinship Networks. In: Family Process 45(4), S. 449-464.

abstract: The purpose of this study was to reveal underlying processes in adoptive kinship networks that experienced increases or decreases in levels of openness during the child's adolescent years. Intensive case study analyses were conducted for 8 adoptive kinship networks (each including an adoptive mother, adoptive father, adopted adolescent, and birth mother), half of whom had experienced an increase in openness from indirect (mediated) to direct (fully disclosed) contact and half of whom had ceased indirect contact between Waves 1 and 2 of a longitudinal study. Adoptive mothers tended to be more involved in contact with the birth mother than were adoptive fathers or adopted adolescents. Members of adoptive kinship networks in which a decrease in level of contact took place had incongruent perspectives about who initiated the stop in contact and why the stop took place. Birth mothers were less satisfied with their degree of contact than were adoptive parents. Adults' satisfaction with contact was related to feelings of control over type and amount of interactions and permeability of family boundaries. In all adoptive kinship networks, responsibility for contact had shifted toward the adopted adolescent regardless of whether the adolescent was aware of this change in responsibility.

Litvak-Hirsch, Tal & Dan Bar-On (2006): To Rebuild Lives: A Longitudinal Study of the Influences of the Holocaust on Relationships Among Three Generations of Women in One Family. In: Family Process 45(4), S. 465-483.

abstract: The current article presents an analysis of the life stories of three generations of women within a family headed by a Holocaust survivor. Its uniqueness lies in its double analysis of the stories told by these women, with an interval of 12 years between telling. The first series of interviews were conducted in the early 1990s within the framework of a pioneering study in which, for the first time, three generations in each of 20 families were interviewed and their narratives analyzed. The current analyses are based on the perspective that, through life narratives, it is possible to view the transformations of relationships over time and that these transformations in relationships are central to personal development. We will examine the relationships of the women in these three generations, both with significant others and with each other. We will trace processes of development and changes in these relationships over the 12 years. Finally, we will discuss the social and methodological implications of our study.

Hedenbro, Monica, Alyson F. Shapiro & John M. Gottman (2006): Play With Me at My Speed: Describing Differences in the Tempo of Parent-Infant Interactions in the Lausanne Triadic Play Paradigm in Two Cultures. In: Family Process 45(4), S. 485-498.

abstract: The goal of the present study was to examine the tempo of triadic play in Swedish and American families through a comparison of 20 families from each culture. When infants were approximately 3 months old, families in both cultures participated in the Lausanne Triadic Play (LTP), a paradigm that facilitates the examination of the triad as a whole and an organization of its parts. All family play sessions were coded separately in Sweden and America using coding systems that had been developed in each country. Dynamics within the triadic play were compared across cultures, and also across coding systems. Results indicated that both coding systems described a distinct difference in the tempo of play between American and Swedish Families. Overall, although there were many similarities between countries, American families were found to have a faster pace in triadic play than Swedish families. This difference in tempo is explored in the data analyses and the discussion of this article.

Kline Rhoades, Galena & Clare M. Stocker (2006): Can Spouses Provide Knowledge of Each Other's Communication Patterns? A Study of Self-Reports, Spouses' Reports, and Observational Coding. In: Family Process 45(4), S. 499-511.

abstract: The purposes of this study were (1) to assess individuals' self-reports of communication and their reports about their spouses' communication in order to examine the congruence of spousal views and (2) to investigate whether each report provided unique information about observed marital interactions. These associations were evaluated in a sample of 119 longtime married couples. The Verbal Aggression and Cooperation subscales from the Conflicts and Problem-Solving Scales were used as measures of negative and positive aspects of communication. The findings indicated that self-reports of both verbal aggression and cooperation were strongly associated with the same individual's report of his or her spouse's verbal aggression and cooperation. Conversely, self-reports were only moderately associated with reports made by spouses (e.g., the husband's report of his wife's communication). Hence, within-reporter agreement was higher than between-reporter agreement about marital communication. When entered into regression models, reports made by spouses, but not self-reports, explained unique variance in observations of marital hostility and affection. There was one exception: Wife self-report of verbal aggression explained unique variance in coders' ratings of wife hostility, controlling for husband report of wife verbal aggression. Findings indicate the importance of assessing partners' views of one another's communication for the most accurate portrayal of marital interactions. Implications for research and clinical work are discussed.

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