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Family Process
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Family Process Heft 1/1999
1/1999 - 2/1999 - 3/1999 - 4/1999 - Überblick

Anderson, Carol M. (1999): EDITORIAL. Dilemmas and Challenges of the New Millennium. In: Family Process 38 (1): S. 1-2

Diamond, Guy S. & Howard A. Liddle (1999): Transforming Negative Parent-Adolescent Interactions: From Impasse to Dialogue. In: Family Process 38 (1): S. 5-26.

abstract: This treatment development, process research study focuses on resolving in-session, parent-adolescent conflicts characterized by negative exchanges, emotional disengagement, and poor problem solving. These processes have been empirically linked to poor developmental outcomes, and clinically linked to poor therapeutic progress. Specifically, we examined how a shift of therapeutic focus from behavior management to interpersonal relationship failures could resolve this impasse and resuscitate therapeutic momentum. A task analysis approach was used to verify the presence of the impasse, to illuminate its core features, and to define the therapist and client behaviors associated with resolving it. In Part 1 of this two-part series, we presented the final performance map that represented that family‘s cognitive, emotional and behavioral interactions necessary to resolve the impasse. This article, Part II, focuses on the theoretical foundation of the intervention strategies, the phenomenology of the impasse, and the therapist‘s skills needed to facilitate it.

Butler, Mark H. & Karen S. Wampler (1999): Couple-Responsible Therapy Process: Positive Proximal Outcomes. In: Family Process 38 (1): S. 27-54.

abstract: Therapist-couple struggle vs. cooperation is linked to clinical outcome. This research conceptualizes and investigates treatment process as it relates to the occurrence of struggle versus cooperation. Models of couple-responsible and therapist-responsible process in couple therapy were developed. Couple-responsible process consists of enactments, accommodation, and inductive process. Therapist-responsible process consists of primary therapist-couple interaction, therapist interpretation, and direct instruction. In counterbalanced order, 25 couples were exposed to couple-responsible and therapist-responsible episodes during one therapy session. Couples reviewed videotapes of the episodes and completed measures of responsibility, struggle, and cooperation. Perceived responsibility was higher and struggle was lower during couple-responsible episodes. No difference in cooperation was found. Presence or absence of a contrast condition, where couples reported on one therapist process after already experiencing its opposite, led to main effects for responsibility and struggle, and mediated effects of struggle and cooperation. Generally speaking, responsibility was even higher during couple-responsible episodes and even lower during therapist-responsible episodes when contrast was present. Similarly, struggle was even lower during couple-responsible episodes and even higher during therapist-responsible episodes when contrast was present. For both couple-responsible and therapist-responsible episodes, cooperation was negatively affected by a shift from the prior, opposite therapist process. Significant proportions of the variance in responsibility, struggle, and cooperation, however, were not accounted for by therapist process alone.

Baker, Khawla Abu (1999): The Importance of Cultural Sensitivity and Therapist Self-Awareness When Working with Mandatory Clients. In: Family Process 38 (1): S. 55-67.

abstract: Systemic therapy emphasizes the importance of understanding each relationship in the context of its ecosystem. Considerations such as the influence of social agencies, culture, and the therapist‘s self-awareness are described in the literature as amplifying lenses within the therapeutic relationship. When a minority client is caught in the web of larger system agencies and is mandated to family therapy, systemic family therapy, which incorporates multiple lenses and attends to the context of social background, may provide a better understanding of the client‘s reality. Clinical cases show that therapists may slip into veiled racist and discriminatory attitudes with minority clients. Self-awareness, „soul searching,“ and appropriate supervision may be of tremendous help in learning from such experiences. A case example illustrates the application of this approach.

Mikulincer, Mario & Victor Florian (1999): The Association between Spouses‘ Self-Reports of Attachment Styles and Representations of Family Dynamics. In: Family Process 38 (1): S. 69-83.

abstract: The current research assesses the association between spouses‘ self-reports of attachment style and their perceptions of family dynamics. The sample included 93 Israeli married couples with young children. Both husbands and wives completed the adult attachment style scale and the perceived and ideal versions of FACES III. Findings showed that spouses whose self-reports endorsed the secure style perceived relatively high levels of family cohesion and adaptability; persons who endorsed the anxious-ambivalent style reported high levels of family cohesion but low levels of adaptability; and persons who endorsed the avoidant style reported relatively low levels of both family dimensions. In addition, significant associations were found between reports of attachment styles, on the one hand, and ideal representations of family dynamics, the marital partner‘s representations of family dynamics, and spouses‘ discrepancies in these representations, on the other. Findings are discussed in terms of attachment theory.

Kaplan, Lori & Pauline Boss (1999): Depressive Symptoms among Spousal Caregivers of Institutionalized Mates with Alzheimer‘s: Boundary Ambiguity and Mastery as Predictors. In: Family Process 38 (1): S. 85-103.

abstract: The goal of this study was to identify factors that predict whether or not community-dwelling spouses experience depressive symptoms upon institutionalization of a mate with Alzheimer‘s disease. Eighty-four community-dwelling spouses (50 wives/34 husbands) completed questionnaires. Boundary ambiguity alone accounted for 51% of the variability in the depressive symptoms score, while mastery alone was found to account for 32%. The total explained variance, when controlling for demographic variables, was 68%. In the stepwise regression analysis, it was observed that mastery did not add significantly to the explanation of the depressive symptom score over and above boundary ambiguity. However, boundary ambiguity and mastery were somehow linked together and were powerful in explaining caregiver symptoms of depression. If a goal is to keep caregivers healthy, then interventions and education about how to live with ambiguity and how to be masterful in spite of the ambiguous status of one‘s mate seem necessary. Clinical implications are discussed. Future research might build upon this study‘s limitations for an even better understanding of factors that relate to caregiver depressive symptoms.

Deal, James E., Margaret Stanley Hagan, Brenda Bass, E. Mavis Hetherington & Glenn Clingempeel (1999): Marital Interaction in Dyadic and Triadic Contexts: Continuities and Discontinuities. In: Family Process 38 (1): S. 105-115.

abstract: While the systemic metaphor used in much current family research requires examination of the interrelationships among individuals, relationships, and the family as a whole, work on triadic relationships has generally been missing. This research examined the presence of second-order effects in marital interaction: changes in interactions between spouses when the husband-wife dyad became a parent-parent-child triad. Results indicated the presence of consistent context effects. Parental behavior when alone was not a good predictor of parental behavior in the presence of a child: behaviors occurred at significantly lower levels in parental dyads than in parent-parent-child triads, and correlations across the two contexts were less than consistent. Results are discussed in light of their implications for observations of families.

Kendall, Judy (1999): Sibling Accounts of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In: Family Process 38 (1): S. 117-136.

abstract: The goal of this research was to generate a description of how siblings in families with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children experienced and lived with this chronic behavioral disorder. Interview and diary data from 11 families (N = 43) were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Data analysis revealed that siblings felt victimized by their ADHD sibling and that their experience of victimization was often minimized or overlooked in the family. Findings suggest that there is a need for increased social and mental health services for all members of the family over the course of the disorder, and that the effects on siblings, in particular, can be potentially quite deleterious to their health and well-being.

Published by arrangement with John Wiley & Sons

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